Scientists have known for a long time now that marine food is a chief source of omega-3 fatty acids of which are beneficial to human health. Not all oils from marine organisms are the same. They each have unique fatty acid composition and they also differ in molecular composition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects that each of these oils had on the lipid content and the distribution of the fatty acid in various lipid classes in the brains and livers of lab mice. The mice were divided into three groups:
- Fed on a high-fat diet (HF)
- HF diet supplemented with fish oil
- HF diet supplemented with krill oil
The feeding lasted for a period of six weeks. The scientists then analyzed lipid extracts taken from the livers and brain of the mice. The analysis was done using a shotgun and TAG lipidomics method.
There were considerable changes in the abundance of many lipid classes. Triacylglycerol content in the mice's liver more than doubled in both the fish oil and krill oil groups. The oils affected both the liver and the brain's fatty acid distribution in mice. The changes in fatty acid and hepatic sphingolipids levels were greater in the krill oil group when compared to the mice in the fish oil group. This finding is consistent with a hypothesis that suggests krill oil has a more convincing anti-inflammatory action and enhances insulin sensitivity more so than fish oil does.
Fish oil and krill oil differentially modify the liver and brain lipidome when fed to mice.